Construction of Green City Index in Indonesian Metropolitan Districts/Cities
Keywords:urban, green city, PLS-SEM, index
Urbanization in Indonesia resulted in population density in urban areas, which has the potential for economic growth, marked by increased population income followed by changes in consumption patterns that will cause environmental problems in urban areas. Seeing environmental issues that occur in urban areas, it is necessary to have a green city concept city planning as a sustainable city planning solution without damaging the environment. The measurement of green city achievement has yet to be carried out in Indonesia. This study aims to measure the Green City Index (GCI) in metropolitan districts/cities in Indonesia using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). It examines the GCI achievements in Indonesian metropolitan districts/cities. The GCI is formed by a socioeconomic dimension of two indicators and an environmental dimension of eleven indicators. Generally, the highest GCI achievements are in the Bogor District, with a score of 74.3 percent. Bangkalan District achieved the highest socioeconomic dimension index, and Bogor District completed the highest environmental dimension index. In addition, there is a significant and negative relationship between GCI and the Human Development Index (HDI) and economic growth. It is hoped that the government and the community can pay attention to the balance of the environment in their activities.