The Best K-Exponential Moving Average with Missing Values: Gold Prices in Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey during COVID-19




imputation, MAPE, 2-exponential moving average


There have been missing values in the gold price data for Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey at the weekend so that imputation techniques have been carried out to solve this problem. The imputation method of replacing NAs with the latest non-NA values also known as last observation carried forward (LOCF) made it a solution to overcome the missing values. This study selected the best -exponential moving average based on the smallest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) from simulations. The 2-exponential moving average analysis was the best analysis for the price of gold which has missing values in Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey during COVID-19, while the largest MAPE values are different for each country.

Author Biographies

Atilla Aslanargun, Eskisehir Technical University

Atilla ASLANARGUN is working as a lecturer at Eskisehir Technical University, Turkey. His research interests are statistical analysis, time series, and, stochastic processes. Apart from that, he has also written books and papers at Turkey. In addition, he has written articles in international and national journals.

Ilyas Siklar, Anadolu University

Ilyas Siklar is working as a professor at Anadolu University, Turkey. His research interests are economic policy, monetary policy, money-bank, capital markets, and macroeconomics. He has written articles. books, papers at national and international levels. He has received many awards, awards, and patents.